Origin of coffee
Coffee is made from the seeds of the berries of the Coffea plant. Once the berries are ripe, they are picked, processed and dried. The dried berries, the 'coffee beans' are then roasted at different temperatures depending on the desired flavours.
Coffee was first drunk in Yemen in the 15th century. They got the beans from the Ethiopian highlands. The beans were treated and roasted in a similar way as today.
Coffee gradually conquered the rest of the northern African countries until it reached Europe.
In the 17th century, the Dutch East India Company began to import coffee on a large scale into Europe. The Dutch then grew this coffee on Java and Ceylon.
Interesting detail: The Dutch East India Company started in 1602 next to the Smallest House in Amsterdam!
Arabica versus Robusta
The two most popular coffee plants for consumption are the Coffea Arabica and Coffea Canephora, also known as Robusta.
Robusta coffee tends to be bitter and has less flavour, but a better body than Arabica. In addition, Robusta beans contain 40-50% more caffeine than Arabica beans. Arabica coffee often has a milder and more aromatic taste and is used in the more expensive blends.